The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making “efforts” to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was “reseming” the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. “We did not see an urgent need to ratify, but there was never any doubt about our commitment to the Paris agreement,” he said. In the five years since Angola signed the agreement, Angola has developed a climate policy, a climate observatory and a national monitoring system that provides up-to-date emissions data. On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target.
just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Under the Paris Agreement, countries have pledged to reduce their emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature to “well below 2 degrees Celsius” and aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius, a more difficult goal that fragile nations say is crucial to their survival. Each country that has ratified the agreement should present a climate plan – also known as the National Determined Contribution (NDC) – on UN climate protection.